Initiatives from the Governments

Iron Hands of laws
As the top notch people have realized the prolonged impact of smoking, the Government at all levels has started fighting against this dreaded scourge. Most varieties of cancer have been found to be routed through smoking with an exempla nary exception of mesothlioma. Various efforts under taken by different Governments have taken place including some token celebrations like the non-smoking day. The issue has been even discussed in the summit at the highest level and common platforms have also been floated. There is no question of taking the issue casually; rather people at all levels have started cautioning the smokers including the young generation against this dreadful addiction. The awareness has gone up to such a level when sponsors like ITC (world renowned Cigarette Company) has been withdrawn from the sponsoring international cricket matches. Smoking has been banned in most public places round the world; smoking has been strictly prohibited in long distance trains; most of the restaurants and entertainment halls have become smoking-free. Remember it’s not only the self, who is affected by smoking, but it includes the associates including children on whose tender shoulders lie the future of mankind. Here we want to list out some of the salient news/ decisions from the Government around the world as steps towards the Quit smoking Campaign.
Efforts in America
Listed below are some desperate efforts by the Federal, State and local government agencies and numerous health organizations to reduce tobacco use by focusing on mass based approaches and its immediate effects.
Prevention of initiation to smoking by restricting access to tobacco mainly among the youth.
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Policy changes in health care systems to promote smoking cessation.
Implementing programs that can be effective in reducing average cigarette consumption per person. California and Massachusetts increased cigarette excise taxes while having allotted a quota of revenue for tobacco control programs.
Educational programs creating awareness for school-aged youth for preventing initiation and initiating cessation in quality health education curricula at the grade level. In depth knowledge about effective cessation methods and a staunch comprehension of the health effects of tobacco use.
Aiding individuals to quit using tobacco thereby reducing chances of passive smokers to viscous smoke.
Effective evaluation techniques to monitor program impact resulting in modification of older versions to create newer powerful editions of the implemented programs.
Treating nicotine addiction to rehabilitate individuals giving their lives a new focus.
School-based tobacco prevention programs identify the social influences that promote tobacco use among youth and teach skills to resist these influences. These programs have demonstrated consistent and significant reductions or delays in adolescent smoking.

Some immediate Yield
In the US, a downward trend has been shown by plunging lung and oral cancer deaths. This has set into motion a number of States to follow suit in implementing tobacco control plans with more vigor and zest. Unfortunately though showing progress, many objectives are far from their targets as 13 States have laws limiting smoking in public places and worksites but few bar it or limit it to private workplaces or restaurants. Though all 50 States and the District of Columbia have laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors its implementation has been almost next to null. Kick That Habit – Quit Smoking
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Nearly 70 percent of current smokers resolve to quit smoking out of which at least 45 percent quit for a period or a even a day but give in and surrender themselves back into its deadly clutches. Only about 2.5 percent of current smokers can climb upon the summit and QUIT permanently each year. Smoking cessation has major and immediate health benefits for men and women in all ages. Smokers quitting before 50 have just about half the risk of dying in the following 15 years when compared with people who continue to smoke.
Steps undertaken by AHCPR
The Awareness through Mass Communication and Rectification (AHCPR), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s expert panel concluded that a variety of interventions are effective towards motivating individuals.
Simple advice to quit by a clinician induces 30 percent to forcefully undergo the thought of giving up this injurious habit.
Individual and group counseling almost doubles cessation rates.
Telephone hotlines and help lines contribute about 40 percent amongst the total number approached.
Nicotine replacement therapy does the rest of the trick. Pharmacotherapy and counseling are provided as add-on paid services towards treating addiction and ultimate cure and freedom from being a slave to smoking.

Apprehension of National Cancer Institute
Blue-collared, food and other service occupation workers endured smoke-filled workplaces that considerably exposed an overall 46 percent to the risks of passive smoking.
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Out of the total 5.5 million workers, 22 percent are teenagers who thus have a 50 percent increased risk of dying from lung cancer compared to the general population.
Correct policies, planning, implementation of procedures and educational and clinical measures can reduce this unwanted secondhand smoke exposure among the population. Policy approaches like voluntary adoption of worksite restrictions, strict clean indoor air laws and enforcement of restrictions for public health.
Induction of public educational campaigns and local community efforts to limit smoking in public places to reduce exposure of both adults and children to secondhand smoke has yielded significantly.
Eliminating passive smoke can only lead to lessening of respiratory disorders and associated illness in children and can considerably bring down their 500,000 visits to physicians each year due to worsening asthma.

The American Academy of Pediatrics has in turn recommended pediatricians to create the requisite awareness among parents about the pit falls of passive smoke upon the tender lungs and to provide guidance on to safeguarding them against this fatal health hazard.
Prohibition for the future generation
Restricting minors’ access to tobacco products is one of the main controlling tags in the multilevel approach to prevent tobacco usage.
Students or adolescent who try to purchase cigarettes or other tobacco forms are to be asked for proof of age in order to curb their tendency. Self-service tobacco displays were erased as they provided easier access to minors to purchase or steal tobacco products. In a 1995 survey, stores with self-service displays were
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Although all States prohibit the sale of tobacco products to minors, proper enforcement of laws had been grossly overlooked leading to a splurge of malpractices that have been corroding the tender saplings even before they have begun to blossom.
States and localities have taken to enforcement activities, compliance checks and retailer education in order to fulfill their stringent measures to keep the minors at bay. States have banned tobacco vending machines except in areas where they are inaccessible to minors.
Federal policy initiatives require ensuring that all States revoke licenses for State minors’ access laws. Participation of State and local communities to ensure effective implementation is the core element in the efforts to address the issue of curbing the purchase of tobacco products by minor. Their initiative must also target social sources of procuring tobacco for young people, including friends, siblings, and parents.
Adolescent perceptions that increase their susceptibility to tobacco use are:

1. Tobacco use is the norm as they have peer and sibling approval for consumption of tobacco products.
2. The staunch notion that it benefits one by lifting ones spirits in times of stress by sharply enhancing clarity of thought.
3. Spit tobacco use and its resultant health hazards are generally beyond the scope of their immature brains.

The silver lining!
A strong anti tobacco campaign combined with a tax increase on tobacco products has remarkably reduced the number of smoking individuals in California and Massachusetts in a limited span when compared to other States around the US.
The Minnesota Heart Health Program reduced approximately 40 percent of the community smokers it came in contact with at various organized meets. A Kick That Habit – Quit Smoking
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combined school-based curriculum was also the focal point of these quit smoking agendas. Later on, a preliminary report by the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) indicated that per capita cigarette consumption was 7 percent less in the 17 ASSIST States. Limiting the appeal of tobacco products to young people involves both restricting tobacco advertising and promotions and effective countering of pro-tobacco messages to reach large segments of the population quickly and efficiently.
Mass media being the definite and ultimate tool for tobacco control, television, radio, magazines and other media tools are used to propagate information and educational messages to large targeted audiences, build up public support for tobacco control programs and policies, reinforce social norms supporting the nonuse of tobacco, and counteract the pro-use messages and images of tobacco marketing and public relations campaigns.
Reducing the appeal of Smoking
An essential element for reducing tobacco’s appeal to youth is to change the current social trend that accepts tobacco use. This change requires countering the campaigns worth billions of dollars for tobacco advertising and promotion that lure young pre-mature minds with misleading images about tobacco. Arizona, California, and Massachusetts have paid counter-advertising campaigns to vaporize such glorified appeal generated for tobacco use to bring to the fore the lurking dangers just beneath the sheath of an inhaled puff. They correctly spread among young people messages about the negative effects of tobacco use on health, performance, and appearance. Preliminary results reveal that the media programs have reached youth, adults, and multicultural populations in those States and have achieved their program objectives.
Over the past several years, new technology has acknowledged that there is no such thing as a “safe cigarette.” Proposed and debated issues have contemplated the reduction of tar and nicotine levels in tobacco products, even considered Kick That Habit – Quit Smoking
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varying the proportions of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and specific additives used in other tobacco products.
Whenever the demand for cigarettes decreases its price increases. An increase in the excise tax on tobacco products reduces the rate of use of both cigarettes and spit tobacco among adults and youth. A 10 percent increase in the price of cigarettes reduces overall smoking among adults by a dramatic 4 percent.
For every 10 percent increase in the price of cigarettes, there is a 7.6 to 12 percent decrease in teen smoking participation rates as youth participation responds more strongly to price.
And some more…
March 2006: Smoking Ban – Smoking in Public Places in Saskatchewan and public places and Workplaces in New Brunswick and Manitoba

Health Canada’s Tobacco Control Programme invites stakeholders engaged in tobacco control issues in Canada to share their views comprising the second phase of the Federal Tobacco Control Strategy (FTCS).

The World Conference on Tobacco or Health was held from July 12-15, 2006 in Washington DC

Released in May 2004, a report reveals that smoking causes diseases in nearly every organ of the body. It expands on the list of illnesses and conditions linked to cigarette smoking that was discussed in the 1964 Surgeon General’s Report on Smoking.

NIDA InfoFacts: Findings for high school youth indicate that 25.9 percent of 8th-graders, 38.9 percent of 10th-graders, and 50.0 percent of 12th-
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graders had already smoked cigarettes when asked in 2005. These figures were lower for all three grades from 2004 data, and for 8th-graders and 12th-graders, the decreases were statistically significant.

American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Tobacco use is the single largest cause of preventable premature mortality in the United States. It also represents an enormous cost burden to the nation.

A series of advertisements made by Contract Advertising also appeared in Indian Express and Loksatta regarding Passive Smoking. Too often, smokers endanger the lives of non-smokers by smoking in their presence. Recently, studies have shown that such second hand smoke can also raise the risk of contracting cancer significantly. The danger is especially grave for children of parents who smoke. They are more likely to suffer from pneumonia or bronchitis in the first two years of life than children who live in smoke-free households. Several studies have also established a link with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Children of parents who smoke have a twofold-increased risk of dying of SIDS.

Australia’s National Tobacco Strategy [Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing] is a policy framework for the Australian Government and State and Territory Governments to work together and in collaboration with non-government agencies to improve health and to reduce the social costs caused by tobacco. The links below provide information on how to quit and the effectiveness of various ways to stop smoking.

Ontario smokers need more government help to quit smoking – Public awareness campaigns, raising tobacco taxes, workplace and indoor public smoking ban are keys to butting out

Tobacco use is the biggest preventable cause of death and disease in Ontario. It kills 16,000 Ontarians each year. The government is investing in
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a comprehensive tobacco-control strategy to improve the health of Ontarians.

“Should there be a total ban on smoking of cigarettes? A forum in India witnesses most of the replies in favor of the total ban

Smoking is known to be the principal avoidable cause of premature deaths in the UK.

Smoking is the single greatest cause of preventable illness and premature death in the UK. Just over a quarter – 26 per cent – of adults in Wales are smokers. But 27 per cent of adults in Wales are ex-smokers.

Statement on Release of U.S. Surgeon General Report on Health Consequences of Secondhand Smoke

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Nicotine Patches

Nicotine gum is a type of chewing gum that delivers nicotine to the body. It is used as an aid in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), a process for smoking cessation and quitting smokeless tobacco. The nicotine is delivered to the bloodstream via absorption by the tissues of the mouth.  It is available over-the-counter in Europe, the US and elsewhere. The pieces are usually available in individual foil packages and come in various flavors. Nicotine content is usually either 2 or 4 mg of nicotine. Popular brands include Nicotex, Nicorette, Nicogum, Nicotinell and Zonnic.  Alternative nicotine replacement products include the nicotine patch, nicotine pastilles/lozenges and the nicotine inhaler.

5 Best Nicotine Patches

Nicotine Inhalers

Nicotine gum is a type of chewing gum that delivers nicotine to the body. It is used as an aid in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), a process for smoking cessation and quitting smokeless tobacco. The nicotine is delivered to the bloodstream via absorption by the tissues of the mouth.  It is available over-the-counter in Europe, the US and elsewhere. The pieces are usually available in individual foil packages and come in various flavors. Nicotine content is usually either 2 or 4 mg of nicotine. Popular brands include Nicotex, Nicorette, Nicogum, Nicotinell and Zonnic.  Alternative nicotine replacement products include the nicotine patch, nicotine pastilles/lozenges and the nicotine inhaler.

5 Best Nicotine Inhalers

Nicotine Inhalers

Nicotine inhalers allows cigarette smokers to get nicotine without using tobacco, much like nicotine gum or a nicotine patch. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved some nicotine inhaler product(s?) for smoking cessation.[5] Nicotine inhalers that are marketed as nicotine replacement therapy should not be confused with electronic cigarettes, which produce an aerosol, usually from a tobacco extract, using a heating coil, while nicotine inhalers produce a noncombusted nicotine aerosol.[5] A study found that “levels of carcinogens and toxins in e-cigarettes typically exceeded those measured in an FDA-approved nicotine inhaler”.[5] Nicotine inhalers are also known by their nickname of “the puffer”. These devices are made of thin plastic, sometimes resembling a cigarette, or a cylinder shape. They contain a porous nicotine-filled plug, located in the base of the product. When you puff on the inhaler, nicotine aerosol is inhaled and absorbed in the mouth’s lining. Every inhaler delivers almost four hundred puffs of this nicotine vapor. The nicotine inhaler is also temperature sensitive. In cooler weather, less nicotine is delivered. The Nicotine Inhaler is considered easier to use than the electronic cigarette as it is usually disposable, and contains fewer parts than the electronic cigarette.

5 Best Nicotine Patches

Nicotine Lozenges

A nicotine lozenge is a tablet (usually flavored) that contains a dose of nicotine polacrilex, which dissolves slowly in the mouth to release nicotine over the course of 20 to 30 minutes. Nicotine lozenges are intended to help individuals quit smoking and are generally an over-the-counter medication. Nicotine lozenges are commonly found in 2 mg and 4 mg strengths, although other strengths may be found. The nicotine is absorbed through the lining of the mouth and enters the blood vessels. It is used as an aid in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), a process for smoking cessation.

5 Best Nicotine Lozenges